Key words : discussion group, focus group, qualitative methodology, group dynamic, technical process. Especialmente en este plano se plantean dos objetivos centrales para este trabajo. Ambos tipos muestran una misma apariencia formal y sirven en general para lo mismo: producir y registrar discurso grupal.
Thus, the planners and executors of advertising can be made to feel that they are themselves privy to the innermost revelations of the consuming public" En este caso, cualquier material concha, piedra, madera o metal, etc. Dejar hablar no es lo mismo que hacer hablar. El silencio que maneja el primero es necesariamente externo y ruidoso, el del segundo es interno y silencioso. Se puede ser directivo para dejar hablar al grupo lo mismo que para hacerlo hablar. El GD lo que pretende es delimitar y abrir espacios donde situar al observador en espera de discurso grupal, algo muy distinto de lo que plantea el FG cuando lo que busca y recoge es precisamente el discurso del grupo propiamente dicho.
La labor del preceptor es contribuir al desescombro, la retirada de material que supuestamente tapa o impide emerger discurso grupal. Posibles discursos intuidos que supuestamente aguardan enterrados, sofocados, bajo el espesor del control social e investigador. En este sentido es necesario remarcar que el GD no se apoya en el grupo. Por el contrario, el GD acaba donde el focusgroup comienza. Su trabajo consiste precisamente en producir ese consenso que ya se presupone como horizonte en el FG. Toma en cuenta lo que el grupo produce y trata de consensuar a partir de las discusiones disensiones, matices, dudas, silencios y huecos de habla que va dejando el discurso.
Apertura de espacios continentes para "deja hablar" al grupo.
Establecimiento de contenidos para "hacer hablar" al grupo. Sometimiento del discurso y de las interpretaciones grupales. Inicio a partir del sin sentido interpretado por el grupo. Inicio a partir del presupuesto de un consenso discursivo previo y aceptado. Por ello, es posible pensar que actualmente lo que se conoce en realidad son FG que llevan el nombre o apodo de GD. Alonso, L. Madrid: Fundamentos. Following a survey of Lugones' work, this book examines subtle subversion in modernista poetry and studies some of its followers.
Julio Herrera y Reissig, along with other modernista and postmodernista poets questioned the very bases of the conventions of modernismo. As innovators within late modernismo, both Lugones and Herrea y Reissig insert moments of the colloquial or the ridiculous in modernismo 's stylized scenes and, even more importantly, carry the imitation of their models such as Albert Samain and Jules Laforgue to heights of frenzy.
Although this tendency has often been viewed more as imperfect imitation than innovation, this study will attempt to show that such tendencies represent a resistance to or a subversion of the received European tradition. The resistance to previous models is an especially important topic in illuminating the course of poetry in Spanish American literature after modernismo. It can offer a way to recast the notion of dependence in modernismo, as well as showing a more direct link between the works of modernismo and vanguardismo. In this regard, Lugones' appropriation of Laforgue's work is an important case in point.
Although it is clear that Lugones borrowed heavily from Laforgue, the most radical experiments in the volume Lunario sentimental are found where the poetry owes least to Laforgue—when Lugones ventures into poetic frontiers unexplored up to this point in Spanish American poetry, especially in regard to his treatment of the urban middle class and the image of the modern woman, transformed from inert femme fatale to working-class citizen.
In a sense both poets exaggerate and then naturalize the inherited conventions of European writing, and by doing so they change the very linguistic and ideological support base of its transmission. Using the visual images of the map, the landscape painting, the decorated body, and the city itself as metaphors for the discussions of poetry, this book will show how modernismo 's overload of sensory paraphernalia creates the gaps that serve as openings for new productions in Spanish American poetry.
The discussion of the transmission and transformation of sign systems, of parody, of subversion, and of "minus devices" using Yuri Lotman's terms will shape these discussions of visual images. The breaks of syntax, the eruption of the unintelligible, the "mysteriousness" of the much late modernista poetry prefigure the works of later vanguardista poets.
Because external structures are dissolving for example, the shifting and changing social-class alignments, a new role for the artistwriter, new economic structures due to industrialization , the structures of poetry formal poetic meter, rhyme also show rearrangement. Given these realignments, the position of the speaking subject in poetry must be shifting as well.
We see the dispersal of the framing poetic voice, the fragmentation of landscape, and a heightened experimentation with conventions of rhyme, rhythm, and meter. Here the notions of voyeurism and fetishism in language aid us in establishing how these subversions in language are created. The breaks in logic and syntax in poetry resonate with the absence of former poetic patterns, making them even more haunting for the reader of today who can read with the tradition of modern poetry as well as the tradition of modernismo. The role of the reader must also be taken into account if we are to understand the changing evaluations of the impact of modernista poetry.
Any study of the historical context of modernismo must be attentive to the massive changes that took place in the late nineteenth century. The late ninteenth century witnessed the loss of the dream of the organic hierarchies of romanticism that had held sway even though romanticism itself stressed personal and turbulent self-expression. In essence, the oneiric tendencies of romanticism were difficult to maintain in a context of rapid modernization and relativization of values.
The mythopoetic vision of the organic hierarchy reemerges in modernista poetry in only fragmented form, and here the return to the visual metaphors of the map, the landscape, the spatial contours of the city or of the interior space aid us in seeing this process of dislocation. Within the late nineteenth-century matrix, we see poets such as Lugones and Herrera reasserting, often with violence, certain elements of heirarchy in their poetry, only to deflate subtly within the poetry itself any claims to former totalities. With their seemingly blind ingenuousness faced with imported and local models, they open the space for a playfulness and experimentation in modern poetry which later poets have used to full advantage.
They recast the vision of the city, the woman, and provincial landscapes through the eyes of a poetic self that makes few claims to structure. Later poets would use the fragments left by these late modernistas as the building blocks for a new diction often an incoherent diction that make Spanish American poetry of this century so distinct from its earlier models.
This book will attempt to show that an element of modernismo generated change in a way that has usually been credited to the more overtly political mundonovista inheritors of modernismo or to the vanguardista poets. While poets such as Lugones do not explicitly theorize on the Spanish American subject in their poetry although Lugones does so abundantly in prose , the dislocations and questionings of the materials offered by the epoch combine to dissolve the very foundations of the assumptions of dependence in Spanish American modernista poetry.
Roland Barthes distinguishes in Writing Degree Zero what he calls the "Hunger of the Word," which "initiates a discourse full of gaps and full of lights, filled with absences and overnourishing signs, without foresight or stability of intention, and thereby so opposed to the social function of language that merely to have recourse to a discontinuous speech is to open the door to all that stands above Nature. Because modernismo does not highlight the social function of language, its contributions have been relegated often to the categories of verbal pyrotechnics and individual eccentricities.
Such experiments have nevertheless been seeds of change for twentieth-century poetry. Why do contemporary readers dismiss modernismo as an ossified movement? Its impact would be easier to forget if its visions and rhythms were not still reverberating through a whole century of poetry celebrated for its novelties and distances from modernismo. Why is there so much suspicion of it as a movement? There seems to be a desire to collapse its multiplicity and subtleties into a single profile, despite the many fine studies on individual poets of the era.
By returning to a poet who fully participated in modernismo 's currents, but who at the same time maintained a skeptical questioning distance within his work, some fissures that vein the movement can come to light. Leopoldo Lugones exploded part of the masquerade of modernismo with Lunario sentimental, but only to the extent that he brought to the surface some of its latent questions. Suspicious, in the end, of a kind of urban modemism and of its dislocations, Lugones finally turned his back on change and sealed off the path toward the unknown with tight rhyme and patriotic melodies.
This is surely not the direction foreseen by the modernistas, but Lugones' development gives us clues to a way certain ideologies speak through poetic form and poetic movements, and not only in their changing thematics. His voracious consumption of his epoch's poetic trends and his peculiar transformations of them are eloquent testimony of the constraints and possibilities of his cultural and social context. Much of what seems tedious in modernista poetry for the modern reader is its overloading of rarefied objects, its jewel-studded interior spaces, the amethyst shafts of light that make vision difficult.literscronitab.cf
Atlas de Cirugia Refractiva (Spanish Edition)
We find it hard to move around these ornately furnished rooms and especially amidst the heavy-lidded goddesses. While modern taste prefers clean, spare lines, white walls, and open spaces, the modernistas work from a different set of culturally determined preferences. Just as they held a penchant for ornately decorated physical spaces, language itself had to be filled, decorated, and overburdened until it groaned under the excess of sensory paraphernalia. With rhyme, rhythm, and extended imagistic development, every inch of space was filled, inviting crowding, violence and, ultimately, parody.
And this is precisely the process we see in several late modernista poets. Growing agitation, slicing through not only the images but the very contours of the poems themselves, carried modernista innovation to frenzies of linguistic activity. Dealing with a set of culturally valued icons usually derived from a European, especially French, context, the Spanish American writer has often been seen in a position of dependence.
The acceptance of codified images in modernismo for example, the femme fatale, twilights, emphasis on luxury and sonority usually implies acceptance of the whole cultural aura that surrounds these images. One may look for a disruptive or questioning movement on other levels, however. Yet even in modernista poetry or prose that seems to have a fetishistic fascination with overloading itself with riches from a more highly ranked cultural order, a subversive movement is sometimes triggered by the overloading process, which calls attention to the overabundance within the closed circles of pleasure and excess by making stark contrast with the emptiness surrounding it.
In our desire to show temporal "progress" in poetic development, an anxiety to seek equations between social progression or regression and to see literature as its prophet or mirror, at times we exalt certain stages of poetry because of their explicit commentary on certain political or social movements. We judge. It is interesting to note critical appraisals of modernismo and the polemics it has aroused.
Our idea of modernismo often takes on the image of a closed space, an escapist, ivory-tower world or an old trunk full of faded costumes and photos. We see less often its disparity, its violence of language, its fetishistic insistence on the bodily form, and its legacy in more contemporary poetry.
Jungle Fever: The Ecology of Disillusion in Spanish American Literature | Publications
For instance, the female figure in modernismo is an object almost at one with the language, heavily decorated, distant and elusive, sometimes spiedon, while the veil of mystery surrounding her is like the web of musicality that encases the poetry. Mocking irony, the intrusive presence of deflation by social issues and discordant sounds and voices, even in gentle pastoral scenes, cannot be reconciled within this setting. What is most striking in the production of these poets is their violence, a violence turned inward against the grain of language and outward against the usual signs of fulfillment, plenitude, and richness.
In general, this plentitude is seen as treasure of physicality, often as stolen treasure. These poets insist on showing the physicality of the referent, shoving it to the forefront, as well as accentuating the physical nature of the words themselves. Like resistant yet malleable bodies, words are to be used and taken apart. Severo Sarduy, in Escrito sobre un cuerpo, states:.