Strengths: Produces extremely reliable, valid information on faculty classroom performance, because students observe the teacher every day Aleamoni, Instructors are often motivated to change their behavior as a result of student feedback. If a professionally designed student-rating form is used, results show a high correlation with ratings by peers and supervisors; in addition, these assessments are not affected by grades. Weaknesses: If a professionally developed form is not used, external factors, such as class size and gender, may influence student ratings.
In addition, students tend to be generous in their ratings. Instruments must be carefully developed by appropriate and documented reliability and validity studies. Nature of the Evidence: Student perceptions of organization, difficulty, and course impact e. Peer reviewers are usually from outside the university, but may include some faculty from within the university.
This process would be analogous to peer evaluation as done for research contributions. Strengths: Raters are familiar with the institutional, departmental, and division goals, priorities, and values, as well as the specific problems that affect teaching. Peer review encourages professional behavior e.
Weaknesses: Assumes that peers have expertise in instructional design, delivery, and assessment. Bias may be introduced because of previous personal knowledge, personal relationships, or personal pressure to influence the evaluation. Relationships among peers may suffer. Conditions for Effective Use: A high degree of professional ethics and objectivity.
Multiple reviewers. Comparisons with instructional methods peers may consider superior or more appropriate. Suggestions for instructors on methods to use, etc. Conditions for Effective Use: Requires knowledge of institutional, college, and departmental policies and procedures as they relate to teaching courses in the engineering curriculum and the maintenance of student information e. Strengths: May be part of a program of continuous assessment. Likely that instructors will act on data they collect themselves. Data are closely related to personal goals and needs.
Necessary to facilitate review of syllabus by peers.
Weaknesses: Results may be inconsistent with ratings by others. Tendency to rate performance higher than students do. Conditions for Effective Use: Requires that instructor be self-confident and secure and have the skills to identifying goals and collect appropriate data. Data cannot be heavily weighted in personnel decisions e. Nature of Evidence Produced: Information on progress toward personal goals.
Even selecting appropriate forms and tools from published, commercially available products requires fairly sophisticated psychometric skills; however, resources to assist in locating instruments can often be found on campus in educational development office or within the social sciences departments. Each of these products must be assessed for appropriateness and utility in the faculty evaluation system that has been designed for a specific situation.
No standardized forms for peer or department chair ratings are commercially available; however, a search of the internet provides ad hoc checklists, rating forms, and other resources that would provide useful guidance in constructing such tools University of Texas. Before either of these can be done, however, it is imperative that the performance elements to be measured have been clearly and completely specified. If new forms must be developed, experts in psychometrics should be consulted. Such expertise may be available in other colleges on the campus, especially in departments that focus on educational research, instructional-systems design, or psychological measurement.source link
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All of the tools for the evaluation of teaching must use the same scale of measurement. That is, whether data are gathered via a student rating form, a peer review form, or a department chair review form, all measures must be on a common scale.
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Most student rating forms use either a 4-point or 5-point scale. Thus student ratings are represented by a number between 1 and 5, with, in most cases, the highest number indicating the most positive rating. If that scale is adopted, the forms used to gather information from all sources should use the same number scale in reporting results. After data have been gathered, the task becomes combining it into a usable form. The examples below use a common 1 to 4 scale, with 4 as the highest rating and 1 as the lowest. All forms, including questionnaires, interview schedules, and any other measurement tools used to collect student ratings, peer ratings, and department head ratings report results on that scale.
The same would be true if the 5-point scale or another measurement had been selected. Whichever scale is used, it must be consistent throughout the evaluation system. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. Issue Volume 38, Issue 3.
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Export Citation s. Export Citation. Plain Text. Citation file or direct import. For help, please view the citation help. Citation Help. Cancel Export. It is very reliable, but not very valid. Asking random individuals to tell the time without looking at a clock or watch is sometimes used as an example of an assessment which is valid, but not reliable.
The answers will vary between individuals, but the average answer is probably close to the actual time.
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In many fields, such as medical research, educational testing, and psychology, there will often be a trade-off between reliability and validity. A history test written for high validity will have many essay and fill-in-the-blank questions. It will be a good measure of mastery of the subject, but difficult to score completely accurately. A history test written for high reliability will be entirely multiple choice.
It isn't as good at measuring knowledge of history, but can easily be scored with great precision. We may generalize from this. The more reliable our estimate is of what we purport to measure, the less certain we are that we are actually measuring that aspect of attainment. It is well to distinguish between "subject-matter" validity and "predictive" validity.
The former, used widely in education, predicts the score a student would get on a similar test but with different questions. The latter, used widely in the workplace, predicts performance. Thus, a subject-matter-valid test of knowledge of driving rules is appropriate while a predictively valid test would assess whether the potential driver could follow those rules.
In the field of evaluation , and in particular educational evaluation , the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation has published three sets of standards for evaluations.
Each publication presents and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. The standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation. Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote educational evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate. In these sets of standards, validity and reliability considerations are covered under the accuracy topic. For example, the student accuracy standards help ensure that student evaluations will provide sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance.
The following table summarizes the main theoretical frameworks behind almost all the theoretical and research work, and the instructional practices in education one of them being, of course, the practice of assessment. These different frameworks have given rise to interesting debates among scholars. Concerns over how best to apply assessment practices across public school systems have largely focused on questions about the use of high-stakes testing and standardized tests, often used to gauge student progress, teacher quality, and school-, district-, or statewide educational success.
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For most researchers and practitioners, the question is not whether tests should be administered at all—there is a general consensus that, when administered in useful ways, tests can offer useful information about student progress and curriculum implementation, as well as offering formative uses for learners. President Johnson's goal was to emphasizes equal access to education and establishes high standards and accountability. To receive federal school funding, states had to give these assessments to all students at select grade level.
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In the U. These tests align with state curriculum and link teacher, student, district, and state accountability to the results of these tests. Proponents of NCLB argue that it offers a tangible method of gauging educational success, holding teachers and schools accountable for failing scores, and closing the achievement gap across class and ethnicity. Opponents of standardized testing dispute these claims, arguing that holding educators accountable for test results leads to the practice of " teaching to the test.
The assessments which have caused the most controversy in the U. Opponents say that no student who has put in four years of seat time should be denied a high school diploma merely for repeatedly failing a test, or even for not knowing the required material. High-stakes tests have been blamed for causing sickness and test anxiety in students and teachers, and for teachers choosing to narrow the curriculum towards what the teacher believes will be tested. In an exercise designed to make children comfortable about testing, a Spokane, Washington newspaper published a picture of a monster that feeds on fear.
Other critics, such as Washington State University's Don Orlich , question the use of test items far beyond standard cognitive levels for students' age. Compared to portfolio assessments, simple multiple-choice tests are much less expensive, less prone to disagreement between scorers, and can be scored quickly enough to be returned before the end of the school year. Standardized tests all students take the same test under the same conditions often use multiple-choice tests for these reasons. Orlich criticizes the use of expensive, holistically graded tests, rather than inexpensive multiple-choice "bubble tests", to measure the quality of both the system and individuals for very large numbers of students.